At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses. Yet he maintained the loyalty of his men, who followed him to the Hyphasis without complaining and continued to believe in him throughout all hardships.
Shortly afterward, however, Callisthenes was held to be privy to a conspiracy among the royal pages and was executed or died in prison; accounts vary ; resentment of this action alienated sympathy from Alexander within the Peripatetic school of philosophers, with which Callisthenes had close connections.
This army was to prove remarkable for its balanced combination of arms. Alexander had ridden Bucephalus into every one of his battles in Europe and Asia, so when it died he was grief-stricken. His soldiers did not like this. But his army encountered resistance in the cities of Miletus, Mylasa and Halicarnassus.
Much work fell on the lightarmed Cretan and Macedonian archers, Thracians, and the Agrianian javelin men. Inresearchers discovered the tombs of four Macedonian kings, including Phillip II, under a burial mound called the Great Tumulus. To keep his monarchy intact, Philip had to continue his conquests; if he stopped, the noblemen would start to ask questions.
When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force.
He let the Greeks know that it was not too late for them to change their minds, but the Thebans confident in their position called for all the Greeks who wished to set Greece free to join them against the Macedonians.
Three days after his arrival, Alexander led the massacre of Thebes. The cities perforce complied, but often ironically: To the king, it was imperative to stress that the gods, and not the soldiers, had forced him to return; had it been otherwise, he would have lost his authority.
According to the legend, on the way he was blessed with abundant rain, and guided across the desert by ravens.
Even so, after a fierce battle in a raging thunderstorm, Porus was defeated. Increasingly paranoid, Alexander ordered the death of one of his most esteemed generals, Parmerio, in B. Half the army with the baggage under Hephaestion and Perdiccasboth cavalry commanders, was sent through the Khyber Passwhile he himself led the rest, together with his siege train, through the hills to the north.
Alexander knew the legend that said that the man who could untie the ancient knot was destined to rule the entire world. His expedition and his own personal interest in scientific investigation brought many advances in the knowledge of geography and natural history.
It is important to note the number of Greeks on the both sides. During his reign he conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the largest empire that had ever existed, leading his army from Greece to Pakistan, and from the Libyan desert to the steppes of Central Asia.
Growing up, the dark-eyed and curly-headed Alexander hardly ever saw his father, who spent most of his time engaged in military campaigns and extra-marital affairs.
Alexander Kills Cleitus In B. Supposedly, one of those on the rock was a girl named Roxane. The king was shocked, and as a consolation, he massacred the Cossaeansa mountain tribe in the Zagros, who were forced to give up their nomad lives and settle in towns.
Death of Alexander the Great By B. Instead of taking the direct route down the river to Babylonhe made across northern Mesopotamia toward the Tigrisand Darius, learning of this move from an advance force sent under Mazaeus to the Euphrates crossing, marched up the Tigris to oppose him.
Battle was joined on a narrow strip of land, where the Persians were unable to benefit of their superior numbers.
Some historians say Alexander died of malaria or other natural causes; others believe he was poisoned. But even after these diplomatic moves, the counter-guerrilla continued. His advance eastward was now rapid.
After all, he had conquered a substantial part of Asia by now, and if he wanted to rule it, he needed help from the Persian aristocrats.The ancient Macedonians worshipped the Twelve Olympians, especially Zeus, Artemis, Alexander the Great was allegedly a great admirer of both theatre and music.
Demosthenes's allegations were lent an appearance of credibility by the fact that the life-style of the Macedonians. In Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Empire, go beyond the myth to learn about this great military leader and his world. In 36 spellbinding lectures, you'll enter the world of Alexander and witness the astonishing feats of military genius that made his name renowned for millennia after his death.
Gain an introduction to Alexander as. Nov 09, · Watch video · Alexander the Great was an ancient Macedonian ruler and one of history’s greatest military minds who—as King of Macedonia and Persia—established the largest empire the ancient world had ever.
Who were the Macedonians and how were they thought of by the Greeks? The Macedonians raised sheep, horses, and grew crops in their river valleys. and he often risked his own life. He once refused water because there was not enough for all of his soldiers to have a drink.
Alexander the Great became king of Macedonia after his. matters and great battles to be treated of by others.
It is agreed on by all hands, that on the father's side, Alexander descended from Hercules by Caranus, and from Aeacus by Neoptolemus on the mother's side. The Macedonians were allowed to file past their leader for the last time before he finally succumbed to the illness on June 11, BC in the Macedonian month of Daesius.
Alexander the Great, the Macedonian king and the great conqueror of Persian Empire, died at the age of 33 without designating a successor to the Macedonian Empire.Download